Process is an activity to produce the desired outcome using specific inputs to produce added-value.
Process treats resources such as human, machine, material by contributing added-value to meet the customers desires.
Inputs of the process are raw material, information or demand.
Inputs are processed.
Outputs of the process are product or services.
Activities that produce added-value:
Activities that are contributing to customer demands are "real" added-value. Example: quick and accurate acceptance of customer order.
Activities that are contributing to organization demands are "internal" added-value. quick and accurate opening of purchase order.
Processes can be classified in two ways:
A correct process had the following properties:
- Process has ownership.
- It has defined criterion.
- It has defined priority.
- It has internal-external customer definitions.
- It is customer oriented.
- It adds value.
- It is understood by everyone.
- It is measurable.
- It can constantly be improved.
Measuring the processes performance is mandatory to be monitored.
1. Internal measurements shows the performance of the process.
2. Output measurements shows the output performance of the process.
3. Customer satisfaction measurements shows how the customer perceives process performance.
Various process criterion (leading-lagging) can be obtained (quality and error ratio, cycle time, customer satisfaction, activity). Another separation is financial and non-financial process measurements.
1. Main business processes
3. Detailed processes
- Critical success factors are ways to make the organization different than the competitors in customers eye, enables the organization superior to competitors, strengthens and focuses.
- Critical processes has the most important effect on critical success factors and are required to improve them.
- Critical processes are the ones that organizations should take into account first and then improve.
- Critical processes are determined by calculating the effect of upper and sub processes to critical success factors.
- The difference between current situation and objectives in critical processes form the critical process region in decision matrix.
- Reasons, effects on the jobs, transaction plans and objectives of critical processes should be identified.
Management with Processes:
To analyze the processes first flow diagrams should be prepared and measurement are made to determine the current performance. Process flow diagrams can be structured in different dimensions (ranking flow diagram, responsibility flow diagram, information flow diagram)
Constant improvement of processes start by understanding the process. Management, identification and measurement of the system are applied for controllability and competition.
Re-organization of processes removes the activities without added-value and arranges added-value levels, simplifies them and help constant improvement.
To perform process change;
1. Inform the ones who are effected by the process
2. Transition to pilot application
3. Evaluating results
7. Monitoring efficiency and supervision
When the Process is Improved
1. Only steps that have added-value are taking into account
2. Decreasing control and decision steps
3. Using small number of high quality personnel
4. To remove re-processing steps establishing preventive and supervision systems
5. Eliminating repetitive activities
1. Composing early decision points
2. Multi lining, parallel job structure and starting as soon as possible, determining middle objectives
3. Multi-talent, team oriented work, increasing authority and responsibility, decreasing signatures, matrix organization
4. Using technology, automation, information access and processing and expert systems.